Interview Question Breakdown: Bad C Analysis

Updated: 20190910

When interviewing developers, I like to use questions that are flexible and provide many avenues for investigation and discussion. A good interview question allows the interviewer to adjust the difficulty or intensity based on the candidate's skill level and performance.

One of my favorite questions in this category is "Bad C Analysis". This question provides a platform for discussing:

  • Basic C operations
  • How the stack works
  • What happens on the stack when you enter/exit functions
  • Undefined behavior & the impact of undefined behavior in a program
  • How optimizations affect a program

Let's dive in.

Table of Contents:

Problem Setup

I begin the question by writing the following program on a whiteboard:

#include <stdio.h>

void foo(void)
    int a = 5;
    int b;

void bar(void)

    int x;
    printf("%d\n", x++);

int main(void)

    return 0;

You can modify the functions to fit any variety of forms, but ultimately you need the following base features

  1. A function which declares a variable on the stack and initializes it
  2. A different function which declares a variable on the stack and uses it uninitialized
  3. Call function #1, then call function #2 a few times

Lines of Questioning

One the problem has been set up on the whiteboard, I start by asking the candidate what the program will do when it's run. You'll generally get a few types of answers:

  • "5 & 6"
    • This is the expected answer
    • The uninitialized variable "a" in bar grabs the value of the memory, which just so happens to be initialized to "5" from the previous function.
    • N.B.: Since the behavior is undefined, this may not be true on every compiler
    • This is true if optimizations are disabled - a particularly savvy candidate may call this out up front
  • "6 & 7"
    • Candidate didn't think about the post-increment operator carefully enough
  • "Some garbage value, and some garbage value + 1"
    • This is a possibility. Ask the candidate why they think it would be garbage.
      • If the candidate says optimizations, ask what might happen in an unoptimized case
    • From here, you can continue the questioning by asking the candidate how the stack works, and what happens with the stack frames for foo() and bar()

If you don't believe that 5 and 6 would actually be output, here's the result of the program run on OS X 10.14.5 with Apple clang 8.0.0 with no optimizations:

$ ./buildresults/interview/bad_c


If the candidate has trouble figuring out what the program would output, start digging into the stack with the candidate:

  • When int a and int b are declared, where are they placed? (Onto the stack)
  • How does the stack work?
    • Draw an example stack on the white board and illustrate what happens when foo() is called
    • Demonstrate what happens to the stack when foo() returns to main()
    • Demonstrate what happens to the stack when bar() is called
  • At this point, ask the candidate again what they'd expect the program to output

Is that output guaranteed?

Once the candidate has figured out the answer, I will typically ask whether this behavior is reliable, and what conditions they might expect the output to vary under. I'm checking whether the candidate can see what's happening yet (undefined behavior). Here are some potentials:

  • If the stack is handled differently (perhaps order of variables?)
  • If there are other initializations or function calls in between, the value on the stack may be different
  • If there is an interrupt or some other context change in the program flow that results in the stack being modified before entering bar()
  • The fact that it's undefined behavior means all bets are off
  • Turning on optimizations usually modifies the output


After the correct answer is identified and we discuss how output can vary, I usually ask whether the candidate would expect the program to return the same value if optimizations were turned on. If they mentioned optimizations earlier, I usually immediately jump to this line of questioning.

  • What would the output be if optimizations are enabled? (garbage values)
  • What optimizations may be affecting the code?
    • unused variables being discarded
    • foo() may be empty after unused variable optimization, and that function may be stripped out completely
    • Your stack variables may be placed into registers instead - you have no guarantee that you'll pick up the previously initialized value depending on program flow

Undefined Behavior

With particularly knowledgable candidates, you can dig further into the details of undefined behavior. You can start by asking, "Why does this even work at all?" and lead to further discussion points:

  • What does undefined behavior actually mean?
  • Undefined behavior in the C standard
  • What are the benefits of undefined behavior to compiler implementors?
  • What are the dangers of relying on undefined behavior for your program to function correctly?

Compiler Warnings

It's important to note that that modern compilers will warn you about the use of an uninitialized variable (depending on your warning configuration). This may be a useful discussion area to explore with the candidate. Would they expect a warning? Would they listen to it? Do they see why this warning is helpful in pointing out an error?

[6/7] Compiling C object 'interview/interview@@bad_c@exe/bad.c.o'.
../interview/bad.c:5:6: warning: unused variable 'a' [-Wunused-variable]
        int a = 5;
../interview/bad.c:6:6: warning: unused variable 'b' [-Wunused-variable]
        int b;
../interview/bad.c:12:17: warning: variable 'x' is uninitialized when used here [-Wuninitialized]
        printf("%d\n", x++);
../interview/bad.c:11:7: note: initialize the variable 'x' to silence this warning
        int x;
              = 0
3 warnings generated.

Overall Strategy

This question can take 5 minutes or an entire hour depending on the candidate's skill level. I generally explore each of the concept areas above unless it is clear that a developer is very talented.

If a candidate does not immediately get the answer, start by walking through stack operations and guide the candidate to the answer.

Remember, this question is a framework: guide your interview based on the response of your candidate, probing in areas where they seem exceptionally skilled or particularly weak. Every candidate experience should be different: don't follow a fixed script!

Example Source

You can find the bad C sample source code in the embedded-resources Github repository.

Change Log

  • 20190910:
    • Demoted headers for consistency across the website
    • Added a table of contents
  • 20190627:
    • Changed variable naming per feedback from Jerry Fitzpatrick
    • Added example output from running the program
    • Added discussion point about compiler warnings